Useful #! commands

$ indicates terminal command         
# indicates a comment                   
Bold indicates "not installed by default"

$ lsusb      #list USB devices
$ lspci      #list all PCI devi
$ startx     #initialize an X session
$ more       #filter for paging through text one screenful at a time. (less gives more advanced).
$ less       #opposite of more; allows backward movement in the file as well as forward movement.

File commands

$ locate    #find files by name (for newbies I suggest the gui catfish -requires installation)
$ find      #search for files in a directory hierarchy
$ ls        #list directory contents
$ cd        #change directory
$ pwd       #print name of current/working directory
$ cp        #copy files and directories
$ rm        #remove files or directories
$ rmdir     #remove empty directories

System info

$ uname
$ df                            #report file system disk space usage
            e.g; df or df /home
$ man                           #interface to the on-line reference manuals
$ free                          #Display amount of free and used memory in the system
            e.g; free -mt (m for MB & t for totals line)
$ uptime                        #tell how long the system has been running.
$ finger                        #user information lookup program
$ w                             #show who is logged on and what they are doing.
$ whoami                        #print effective userid
$ cat /proc/meminfo             #memory info
$ cat /proc/cpuinfo             #cpu info
$ lsb_release -a                #print (a: all ) distribution-specific information
$ last -x | grep shutdown       #show listing of last 10 logged in users; you can pipe this
                                 to the tail to read the last n instances. For example, for
                                 10 instances: last -x | grep shutdown | tail -n 10
$ last -x | grep reboot         #show listing of last logged in users
$ sudo shutdown -P hh:mm        #shutdown & poweroff (-P) @ hh:mm


$ uname
$ ps                    #report a snapshot of the current processes.
$ top                   #display Linux tasks
$ htop                  #interactive process viewer based on top
$ powertop              #program to analyze power consumption on Intel-based laptops
$ kill pid              #send a signal to a process
$ killall proc          #kill processes by name
$ pidof program       #find the process ID of a running program

Some useful terminal shortcuts

Ctrl+C       #hault the current command
Ctrl+Z       #pause command
$ fg           #resume paused command in foreground bg resume paused command in background
Ctrl+D       #logout of current session (similar to exit)
Ctrl+W       #erase last word before crusor
Ctrl+U       #erases the whole line
Ctrl+R       #type to bring up a recent command

The 5-Minute Essential Shell Tutorial
Bash shell keybindings cheat sheet
Unix/Linux Command Cheat Sheet [FOSSwire.com] (PDF)

I  hope this list turns out to be useful to you :)
Thanks for reading

 last update: 2013-02-27

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